Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Line a large baking sheet with a silicone mat or parchment paper and set it aside.
In a large mixing bowl, whisk together the flour, baking soda, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, and allspice and set aside.
To the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, add the butter, white sugar, and brown sugar. Beat on medium-high (a speed of 6-8 on a stand mixer) for 5 to 8 minutes, or until the butter and sugars are light and fluffy. Scrape the bottom and sides of the bowl down a few times to ensure everything gets incorporated.
Add the egg, molasses, and vanilla to the bowl with the butter and sugar. Beat on low, gradually increasing speed to medium, and mix until all of the ingredients are fully combined.
Add the flour mixture to the bowl with the butter mixture in two batches and mix until no more steaks of dry flour are visible. Start on low speed and gradually increase to medium-high, scraping down the bowl as needed.
Wrap the bowl tightly with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least an hour up to overnight. If chilling overnight, set the dough on the counter for about 15 minutes before scooping.
Whisk together the sugar, cinnamon, and ginger in a small bowl. Scoop out balls of dough into your palm using a 1.5 tablespoon-sized cookie scoop, and use both hands to form them into neat round balls. A larger cookie scoop will yield fewer cookies. Roll each dough ball into the spiced sugar, coating all sides, then transfer the cookies to the prepared baking sheet, spacing them an inch or more apart.
Bake cookies for 9 to 12 minutes, or until the edges are set. Allow the cookies to cool on the baking sheet for 10 minutes before transferring them to a wire rack to cool completely. The cookies will continue to firm up as they cool.